Nutritional Deficiencies


Vitamins and minerals are essential nutrients because they perform hundreds of roles in the body. There is a fine line between getting enough of these nutrients (which is healthy) and getting too much (which can end up harming you). Eating a healthy diet remains the best way to get sufficient amounts of the vitamins and minerals you need. Harvard


Sometimes the use of supplements are necessary for treating health conditions, e.g malabsorption disease (e.g Celiac, IBD)  or Anemia.  Conditions that are linked to exhaustion / fatigue.   Supplements may also be helpful for treating ongoing toxicity, stress and inflammation. They are used alot by doctors trained in Functional Medicine, who deal with complex health conditions like EI, CFS, MCAS and related pain syndromes and mental health issues. 


Vitamin A

Vitamin D
Vitamin E
Vitamin K
Vitamin C
  • Often seen as the most famous of the deficiencies, as a lack of vitamin C causes scurvy.
  • Vitamin C (also called ascorbic acid) is vital for the body because it’s needed to make collagen. Without vitamin C, collagen can’t be replaced and the different types of tissue breakdown, leading to the symptoms of scurvy. These include:
    • – Muscle and joint pain
    • – Tiredness
    • – Appearance of red dots on the skin
    • – Bleeding and swelling of the gums
  • Vitamin C is also an antioxidant helping to prevent against cardiovascular disease and some cancers.
  • You’d have to take a lot of vitamin C from supplements to overdose, but very high levels over long periods can lead to kidney stones.
Vitamin B6
Vitamin B12
Pantothenic Acid
  • Choline may be a non-essential B vitamin, but it is important for cell membranes and for the production of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, which has a role in memory and muscle control.
  • However, choline doses higher than the usual maximum recommended amount are associated with several negative effects including fishy body odor, increased perspiration and salivation, dizziness, vomiting and low blood pressure.
Sodium & Chloride
  • Calcium is the most abundant mineral in our body as it’s the major constituent of bones and teeth.
  • Calcium is also required for muscle contraction. Short term deficiency can cause muscle cramps, stiffness and poor mobility.
  • It’s important to have a good calcium intake in the bone-building years which are as a baby and again from adolescence to about 30 years of age; especially important in females. Insufficient calcium during these periods can lead to brittle-bone disease (osteoporosis) where your bones break very easily. Post-menopausal women should also have a good calcium intake to help slow the rate of bone degeneration.
  • Although calcium toxicity is rare, symptoms may include fatigue, depression, muscle weakness, kidney stones, constipation, and spondylitis (rigidity and inflammation of the spine).
  • Too much calcium can also limit iron absorption.
  • Iron is an essential mineral with several important roles in the body. For example, it helps to make red blood cells which carry oxygen around the body.
  • A lack of iron can cause iron deficiency anemia and is not uncommon even in the West.
  • Too much can cause constipation, nausea, vomiting and stomach pain. Very high doses of iron can be fatal, particularly if taken by children, so always keep iron supplements out of the reach of children.
  • Copper helps to produce red and white blood cells, and triggers the release of iron to form hemoglobin, which is the substance that carries oxygen around the body. It is thought to be important for infant growth, brain development, the immune system and strong bones.
  • Taking high doses of copper could cause: stomach pain, sickness, diarrhea, and damage to liver and kidneys, if taken for a long time.

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